Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of managing the information that a company needs to run its business operations. It involves storing data and distribution to users and application programs, modifying it as necessary, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from being corrupted by unexpected failure. It is an integral part of the overall informational infrastructure of a company which supports decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that enabled the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a wide range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables which organize data in accordance with an established pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and permits cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of attributes or fields that contain information about data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most widely used type of database today. This model is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It is also easier to update data since it does not require the changing of certain sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases and offer different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level addresses cost, scalability and other operational issues, such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the way the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of external views based on different models of data and may also include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data in order to improve the performance.

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